In every organization, there are three significant resources to be handled if the company wishes to achieve its objectives and goals. These resources are Humans, materials and financial resources. And from these three, human resource management is the most tough and important to handle. The factor being that every human being is born distinct and therefore is bound to have not the same characteristics– that is, the ways they believe feel reason and act. Human beings control and collaborate the other resources. They make up the workforce of a company and are described as personnel. Because human nature plays a really bulk in the overall success of an organization, it is therefore important to have an effective working relationship between the worker and the manager as this is vital for the success of the company.
Human Resource Management, which includes the efficient and effective management within an organization, is among the vital functions of Educational Administrators. This is since every administrator has a function to perform through his staff and his own abilities. Every university like other formal organizations needs people to perform its programs and accomplish educational goals and objectives. To be able to achieve this, the Registrar who is the ‘chief of administration’ needs to ensure that personnel with whom he works understands what to do, when to do it and how to do it. Another name for personnel management is personnel management. No matter the name we chose to call it, its standard function is to deal with people who comprise an organization. And these people have diverse interest, values and goals.
Akpakwu (2003), relates to personnel management as the appropriate utilization of the people in a company to attaining their needs and organizational goals. To this extent, it includes understanding the nature of people in an organization, their needs and aspiration and developing the necessary strategies to achieve these needs and goals. It likewise includes recognizing the objectives of the company and creating a conducive environment to leading staff to achieving the goals of the organization. Armstrong in Akpakwu (2003), sees personnel management as the process of acquiring, organizing and motivating the personnels required in by a company. He promoted for the creation of a cordial and really conducive environment in order to satisfy the needs of the workers and attain organizational goals. Denga (1990), on the other hand, relates to Human management as a workout in human engineering. People have needs, problems, sensations character etc which they come along with to these organizations. What ever name it is called, human resource management is the responsibility of all those who handle people. The administrative manager must for that reason discover ways of pleasing these needs in such a way that the individual, society and company’s objectives are accomplished.
The act of getting people together to achieve organizational goals and objectives efficiently and successfully in an organization is the responsibility of the management. Management consists of planning, organizing, staffing, leading or directing and controlling the efforts of individuals to accomplish the goals. A good manager finds the 5 basic functions of management.
Digging Deeper into Organizational Behaviour
Assisting in developing a workplace that is conducive for his members of staff so about promote maximum contentment thus encouraging them.
Making sure that the capabilities and skills of the workforce are utilized to the optimum in pursuance of the university’s objective and mandate.
Ensuring a fair balance in between the personal needs of staff and the needs of the Registry and the university in general.
Recruitment and Selection:- This involves looking for an appropriate person to fill the uninhabited position. In the registry department, the least credentials for an administrative secretary is a bachelor’s degree. The standard objective of staffing is to locate certified applicant who will certainly stick with the company.
Training and Education:- This involves developing staff to professional growth. In the Registry department, training involves induction of brand-new employees, formal training of staff which may consist of on the job training.
Wages and income Administration:- This describes the financial benefits that are provided to staff for the tasks they have actually performed. In the university administration, fixing of salaries is a constant exercise as position and posts keep altering due to growth and practical improvement.
Staff Appraisals:- This is the continuous process of feed back to subordinates about how well they have actually performed on their tasks. In the registry department, members of staff are officially appraised yearly by their instant supervisors and the examination validated by the Promotions and appointments committee.
Welfare:- In University administration, the main purpose of welfare is to provide assistance to members of staff and also encourage a positive relationship between staff and the university by providing extra security conveniences.
Trade Union Relations: – According to Akpakwu (2003), trade unions are ‘sounding boards’ for policies and decisions affecting staff. In university administration, joint committees comprising management team and trade unions have shown to be effective in dealing with conflicts. Trade Unions champion the problems and grievances of their members with the view of improving the welfare of their members.
The functions of chief administrative officer in the university are lots of. Generally however, he is to plan, organize, coordinate, direct and report activities in relation to staff under him.
All organizations consisting of educational institutions are comprised of people who opted to operate in it primarily due to the fact that it enables them to satisfy at least a few of their personal needs. Essentially everyone works, is or plays informed in a company. Try need to be made to define what a company is. Ede (2000), specifies organization as a system of knowingly collaborated activities which are deliberately structured for the function of recognizing specific goals. Dale (1978), views company hence: ‘Whenever several people are interacting for a common end, there must be some form of organization: that is the task must be divided amongst them and the work of the group need to be coordinated. Arranging and dividing the work for coordination make up the process of company and when that is finished, the group might be called a company.’.
According to Unachukwu (1997), the more complex a company is, the harder it is to collaborate activities, anticipate phenomena or conventions and obtain set objectives maximally. We can therefore see organizational behaviour as the methodical study of the nature of organizations; how they begin, how they establish and their impacts on individual members. It is also an organized attempt to understand the behaviour of people in a company; not simply human behaviour however structural behaviour, aspects behaviour, systems behaviour and even policy behaviour. Thus for staff in the registry department of the university to function effectively and successfully, the Registrar has to comprehend the nature of people he is dealing with and have the ability to translate their behaviours. Organizational behaviour follows the principle of human behaviour: People in a company are governed by the very same mental systems both on the job and outside the job. Organizational behaviour is human behaviour in a certain setting. The behaviour of an individual in a company is determined to some extent by external and internal factors. These include learning ability, motivation, perception, mindset, emotions, frustration etc. while the external factors consist of anxiety, benefit system, degree of trust, group cohesiveness, social factors, workplace policies etc. Organizational behaviour can also be situational. An individual’s behaviour can not be disassociated from the circumstance he discovers himself. For example, a normally calm individual is injected consistent close physical aggressiveness with some other people. The behaviour of that individual is therefore a function of interaction in between his characteristics and other environmental variables. Organizations are viewed as intricate systems including interrelated subsistence. Modifications or modification in any part of the system have effects on other part of the system. Adjustment in the system results in wanted positive modifications called functions. Unfavorable consequences in response to modification or modification in the system are called dysfunction. For that reason the behaviour of an individual is substantiated of the decisions that have actually been taken in a company.
Organizations represent continuous interaction between structure and process. To get a task achieved in an organization, we have to define who does what. Structures describe organizational shapes, definitions and guidelines. It is what binds an organization together. Process is the sequence of activity in the system. Decision Making, Communication, Leadership and Conflict are couple of examples of the numerous processes that occur within an organization. Ocho (1997), aptly suggests that human beings in a company need to be continuously encouraged for sufficient production and commitment. As a result, the primary responsibility of the Registrar is to make sure that personnels are utilized and managed effectively and effectively to meet the university goals.
Great human relations in a company, for it to function efficiently and efficiently can not be over-emphasized. It provides understanding on how people communicate and respond in not the same organizational situations in an effort to satisfy their needs and in the process meet organizational goals. The chief administrator’s ability to understand his staff and their problems, and his belief in and the practice of democratic leadership will go a long way to make him prosper in his administrative and supervisory task. The effective operation of any organization depends on the Human Resources because organization. Unachukwu (1997), implicitly states that Educational Administration is interesteded in the mobilization of the efforts of people for the accomplishment of educational objectives. It is therefore imperative that the Registrar cultivates the practices of Human Relations in his repellent administrative task. Edem (1987), observed that the difference in between the concepts of the Efficiency movement and those of the Human Relations movement was that of the previous highlighting getting most out of the worker, even to the extent of requiring him to subordinate his interest and needs of those in the organization, while the latter emphasized the humanitarian elements which looked for to satisfy the needs of the worker, lessen his disappointments and increase the level of job satisfaction.
According to Mary Follet,(1964), a popular pioneer of the Human Relations movement in the National Society For The Study of Education, she specified that the actual service for company males is no t simply the production and distribution of produced articles, however to provide a chance for individual development and self-actualization through much better organization of human relationships. The process of production is as important for the welfare of society as the item of production. Follet views administration as a shared responsibility, asserting that organizational structures need to permit a totally free interaction of concepts in order to decrease the rigidity of hierarchical structures; however cautioned that shared responsibility must not be interpreted as being synonymous with laissez-faire and absence of centerpieces of reference.
Without personnel, there can be no company. These personnels are in 2 categories: Management and Subordinates.
These three properties assist a lot in understanding the behaviour of workers in a company. When Adam Smith conceptualized the financial basis of human motivation, it was his viewpoint that people work mostly for money and are unconcerned about social feelings, and are inspired to do just that which provides them with them with the best reward. This technique has been criticized due to the fact that its view of male is dehumanizing. Money might not be the only main source of fulfilling behaviour in an organization as there is limit to which money can be made use of in encouraging workers. According to Argyle (1972), People can end up being committed to the goals of the company as a result of participating in decision making in their work place or co-partnership schemes or through their relationships with groups or managers. Dedication might also come through the job itself. For instance through ones accomplishments, acknowledgment, responsibility and expert growth. All these are motivators that would energize personnels to satisfy organizational goals and objectives. The ability of the educational manager to therefore prepare and arrange human resources efficiently, encourage and control the staff is vital to the effective and reliable management of the university. This is because excellent human resource management practice not just helps in attracting and keeping the best of staff, but likewise motivating them to impressive work efficiency. Lack of motivation in work circumstances has major effect on job satisfaction and when job satisfaction is absent, the worker may soon leave the organization. Saiyadanin (1999), supporting states that development or changing one’s status shows when this growth is not experienced, the employee ends up being disappointed and dissatisfied.
An effective company will certainly planning to it that there is a great degree of cooperation, communication, dedication, job satisfaction and motivation levels amongst its staff who will feel more incentivized towards their work duties and attaining overall organizational goals.
Motivation is a psychological behavior which has been described by Luthan (1998) as, ‘a process that begins with a physiological shortage or need that activates a behavior or a drive that is focuseded on a goal reward.’ Commitment has been explained by Northcraft and Neale (1996) as being a mindset of people through which they reveal their loyalty to the organization and also their concern for the organizational success. Communication has actually been seen as an activity of communicating information amongst 2 or more people. When exactly what is in the mind of the sender is properly comprehended and acted upon by the receiver, effective interaction occurs. These three locations of human behavior, motivation, commitment and interaction are integral for organizational success and excelling organizational efficiency.
There have actually been many researches performed to see the interrelations in between the three parts of human behavior mentioned above. There is a lot of work done on the relationship in between organizational dedication and motivation levels. According to a research study by John P. Meyer, dedication has actually been viewed as a driving force for high motivation levels. Motivation levels will automatically rise which will lead to an overall increase in organizational performance if staff members are committed towards their job and their work environments. This connection has actually been supported by the Self-Determination Theory (SDT) by Edward L. Deci and Richard M. Ryan who initially proposed that there is a natural and intrinsic tendency of humans to act in a specific healthy or effective way. As soon as organizational commitment will be established, people will have a natural tendency to be inspired in the right instructions and use up their job tasks with more loyalty, interest and enthusiasm.
Adeyinka Tella in her analyze ‘Work Motivation, Job Satisfaction, and Organizational Commitment of Library Personnel in Academic and Research Libraries in Oyo State, Nigeria’ research studies the effect of motivation and dedication on Library personnel. She found some intriguing findings after questioning 200 library personnel in 4 Academic and five Research libraries in Nigeria. The studies revealed that there is a connection in between job dedication, satisfaction and motivation despite the fact that the connection in between dedication and motivation is negative. On one hand her study reaffirmed numerous previous research studies such as that motivation increases job satisfaction and job efficiency (Brown and Shepherd, 1997). Even the part on negative relationship between organizational dedication and motivation was visualized by Brown and Shepherd as it was seen that the librarians had their own deeply rooted shared values and belief structures that they were not going to keep aside and follow the organizational vision, which thus lowered their motivation levels. A second analyze conclusion was that there was no major difference between the viewed motivation of expert and non-professional librarians. It was discovered that both groups are most incentivized by financial advantages (Colvin, 1998) and if they are offered with the same degree of work environment and work rewards that they deserve, motivation levels will certainly not have the tendency to vary. Another important conclusion was that as years of experience boost and librarians stay with the very same company for a long time, commitment levels have the tendency to stagnate rather than increase after a particular duration. This is inconsistent to a study by Coleman, and Meyer (1994) who said that dedication levels go higher and higher as a staff member’s period with the organization increases. The one significant aspect that all this study pleases is that job satisfaction, organizational commitment and motivation all lead to greater and improved organizational efficiency at work.
The relation between motivation and interaction can not also be undermined. According to a milk producer and personnel manager Liz Doornink, who owns and operates Human Resource Services, Baldwin, Wis, workers are the integral force in the milk farms and all efforts has to be made to keep them happy and inspired. At Monsanto Dairy Business One-Step Ahead National Dairy Women’s Conference, he advised that manufacturers at each farm spend some quality time with their farmers and hold social events such as barbeque parties to recognize exactly what exists precisely that encourages employees and after that those elements should then be utilized as tools to incentivize them. He states that employees’ marital or age factors ought to likewise be taken a look at before deciding on ways to encourage staff as people at various ages and status might tend to be motivated in a not the same manner. Interaction methods will tend to differ for each of these not the same sets of individuals. He likewise mentioned that with time, motivational factors might alter and the business might exist with newer difficulties. E.g. if an existing young student-employee dairy farmer has actually now gotten a degree or extra experience, more recent motivational tools will certainly have to be touched upon to inspire him additionally to remain with the business or to enhance his efficiency if in case his performance stagnates or levels off at a point. In addition, he went on to state that organizational goals must be set in coordination with all workers after interacting with them to learn exactly what remains in the minds of people and what is achievable by them. Just anticipating and determining goals for them to be achieved is not it. Goals ought to be set with individuals and if workers meet them, they should be rewarded so that they are motivated even further.
From the example of Doomick, we collect that motivation and interaction go hand in hand. Communication with employees is needed to learn where the workers stand at the moment, exactly what is their current state, are they satisfied with their jobs or are they lacking in their inspirational levels. Talking with them will explain to the company the ways the employees can be inspired or which tools are most appropriate. Remaining in consistent touch with the goals and needs of employees is in itself an inspiring element. For effective communication and hence higher degrees of motivation, it is important that organizations acknowledge both non-verbal and spoken ways of communication from employees. Management needs to be truthful and reasonable with staff members without being biased to anyone. They ought to not use their power or position to take control of the entire conversation but instead have a welcoming feel to themselves which makes them easily approachable. These members ought to be great listeners in addition to fantastic orators and speakers. They have to be able to interact well with workers at all positions and levels according to the circumstance and the individual in front. Motivation levels for the employee will absolutely increase if interaction is well created.
Organizational communication is seen to be the heart of organizational performance. Communication is the essential to which the other 2 elements of motivation and dedication can be attained successfully. Staff members have to be given the assurance that there are people who are willing to listen o them, assist them which they are actually being valued. CMPQ (Commitment, Motivation & & Performance Questionnaire) is acknowledgment of the significance of motivation and commitment to enhancing organizational performance and is a great device to identify how workers view their relationship with their superiors and the degree to which their needs and aspirations are being fulfilled. As seen earlier, dedication has an excellent influence on motivation. In truth, both commitment and motivation can impact one another. It is how the organization forms its right devices and determines the lacking points in staff members which have to be worked on. If the certain aspects between employer/employee relationships are dealt with, employee engagement, commitment and motivation will certainly all be affected positively which in turn will certainly result in the total improvement in organizational efficiency.
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National Society for the Study of Education. (1964), Behavioral Science and Educational Administration, The Sixty-third yearbook, part 2 (University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
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